The Senate, fearful of Caesar, reduced the number of legions he had,[5] then demanded that he relinquish command of his army. After several months, Caesar finally arrived to address the legions in person. Caesar quickly gained a significant victory at the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio, Cato the Younger and Juba, who all committed suicide. The Roman Civil Wars. Nothing worked, and the mutineers continued to call for their discharges and back pay. Agreeing, his army called for action. The legions were waiting for their discharges and the bonus pay that Caesar had promised them before the Battle of Pharsalus. With Pompey dead, Caesar’s victory was all but secured. Caesar's allies in the Senate, especially Mark Anthony, Curio, Cassius and Caelius Rufus, tried to defend their patron, but were threatened with violence. The bad blood between the two men went back several years—Marius had once taken credit for one of Sulla’s military achievements—and it finally led to war in 88 B.C., when Marius outmaneuvered Sulla to win command of the Roman legions in a conflict with King Mithridates of Pontus. Sulla eventually stepped down and went into voluntary retirement in 79 B.C., but his brief power grab weakened the foundations of the Roman Republic. That was an illegal political act since he was entitled to keep his army until his term expired. The Roman attention had been turned to matters abroad. The era of the Roman Republic and early Empire was a time of great military conflict. [10] Caesar now had three veteran legions and fifty-three cohorts of recruits at Corfinium. The death of Caesar (Credit: Leemage/UIG via Getty Images). Emperor Diocletian’s reforms helped bring an end to the crisis. with legions being taken away to serve the cause elsewhere. Pompey fled to Egypt and was killed upon arrival. As the battle turned against him, he abandoned part of his fleet and fled with Cleopatra to Alexandria. Vitellius was marched half-naked through the city and murdered, and Vespasian was proclaimed the new Caesar. Antony had slightly more ships at his disposal, but he found himself outclassed by Octavian’s brilliant general, Agrippa. Despite having seized power in brutal fashion, he proved a capable leader and went on to preside over a period of relative stability in Rome. Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra and is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain, Pothinus, as a gift. [citation needed]. Offended, the Senate demanded for him to disband his army immediately, or he would be declared an enemy of the people. The potential prosecutions were clamored by his enemies for alleged irregularities that occurred in his consulship and war crimes claimed to have been committed during his Gallic campaigns. 351–352: Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus in Syria Palaestina - revolt suppressed Julius Caesar's legions fought against the Senate supported legions of Pompey the Great. He went on to tell them that they would all be discharged immediately. The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. When the dust finally cleared in 324, the Tetrarchy was dead and Constantine was the sole ruler of both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. Rome was already straining under the weight of increased raids by barbarian tribes, and the sudden political instability launched a period of civil war that nearly brought the Empire to its knees. That same year, Sulla was elected consul prior , while a proposal to transfer command in Asia from Sulla to Marius was duly decreed. He and Cato committed suicide shortly after the battle. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! The bad blood between the two men went back several years—Marius had once taken credit for one of Sulla’s military achievements—and it finally led to war in 88 B.C., when Marius outmaneuvered Sulla to win command of the Roman legions in a conflict with King Mithridates of Pontus. Roman Civil Wars focuses on the famous battles of the years 55 BC to 10 AD where legionary fought wild barbarian tribesmen, Parthian horse archers, and all too often, other legionaries. After the show of strength, Pharnaces drew back to pacify his new conquests. Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. A secondary reason for Caesar's immediate desire for another consulship was that Caesar's 'imperium' or safety from prosecution was set to expire and his enemies in Rome had senatorial prosecutions awaiting him upon retirement as governor of Illyricum and Gaul. He understood that civil war would most likely ensue between himself and the Roman nobility, led by his strongest rival and former ally: the brilliant military commander Pompey the Great. Pompey countered by constructing towers for heavy artillery on a number of merchant ships and used them to destroy the rafts as they were floated in position. Caesar's Civil War. Prior to the war, Caesar had served for eight years in the Gallic Wars. Antony lost control of the troops, who began looting estates south of the capital. After just three months in power, he was defeated and displaced by Vittelius, a military governor who had been hailed as emperor by his men. Caesar and Cleopatra never married because Roman law prohibited a marriage with a non-Roman citizen. To wit, Pompey accused him of insubordination and treason. The once peaceful domain of Rome has been plunged into Civil War, with Legions from both sides being mobilized. Taking advantage of Pompey's absence from the Italian mainland, Caesar marched west to Hispania. A blood-soaked struggle erupted between the plebian “Populares” faction and Sulla’s upper class “Optimates,” and Marius emerged from hiding, reclaimed the city and ruled it as a tyrant. Domitius ignored Pompey's request believing he outnumbered Caesar three to one. Over the next 35 years, the Roman throne was claimed by a merry-go-round of several dozen usurpers and generals, nearly all of whom were eventually killed in battles with their rivals or assassinated by their own men. That made Caesar think that he would be prosecuted and rendered politically marginal if he entered Rome without consular immunity or his army. The war was a four-year-long politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Illyria, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania. He and Pompey had, along with Marcus Licinius Crassus, established the First Triumvirate, through which they shared power over Rome. He escaped to Capua with those politicians who supported him, the aristocratic Optimates and the regnant consuls. In 50 BC, at the expiry of his proconsular term, the Pompey-led Senate ordered Caesar's return to Rome and the disbanding of his army and forbade his standing for election in absentia for a second consulship. Painting showing Marius in exile. Galba was proclaimed emperor from Spain; he entered Rome in September but was murdered and succeeded by Otho; meanwhile Vitellius was proclaimed emperor in Germany and Otho committed suicide. It was to no avail since Caesar quickly routed Pharnaces at the Battle of Zela (modern Zile in Turkey) with just a small detachment of cavalry. The war lasted for four years until Caesar finally defeated Pompey and became Dictator of Rome. (Credit: ullstein bild via Getty Images). He had also taken the city of Amisus, which was a Roman ally; made all the boys eunuchs and sold the inhabitants to slave traders. During the ten years, Caesar used his military forces to conquer Gaul and to invade Britain, which was popular with the people, however his enemies claimed it was without explicit authorization by the Senate.[5]. Ancient Rome waged many campaigns of conquest during its history, but its most influential wars may have been the ones it fought against itself. He ended a long cycle of internal conflict in the Roman world, a territory that Julius Caesar had realised was too big to be ruled by its old institutions. Scipio was defeated in 46 BC at the Battle of Thapsus in North Africa. The First Triumvirate was an unofficial political alliance, the substance of which was Pompey's military might, Caesar's political influence and Crassus's money. Caesar soon emerged as a champion of the common people, and advocated a variety of reforms. January 4: Caesar narrowly escapes defeat by his former second in command, February 6: Caesar defeats the combined army of, March 17: In his last victory, Caesar defeats the, Caesar probably writes the Commentaries in this year, Julius Caesar is assassinated on March 15, the, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 02:33. No sooner had he left than the city than it plunged back into civil war. Caesar's Civil War (49 - 45 BC) This war is also called the Great Roman Civil War. A major reason for Pompey's defeat was miscommunication among front cavalry horsemen. In June of 68, after the Senate declared Nero a public enemy, he committed suicide, and Galba was made emperor. When he announced that he would allow them to join the campaign, a huge cheer arose from the assembled troops. Most were embarrassed by their role in the mutiny in Caesar's presence. The political situation is discussed in depth in the ancient histories of Appian and Cassius Dio. It would only take a few more decades before they began to crumble. In 68 ad civil war broke out in the empire in the struggle for succession after Nero's death. Caesar's own account of the Civil War makes no mention of the river crossing but simply states that he marched to Rimini, a town south of the Rubicon, with his army.[8]. Caesar would do no such thing. His reign would be short-lived. The mistake wasn't in letting the situation get that far, but in that they believed the Roman and Italian people would rally to defend the Republican system. Meanwhile, the aristocrats, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger, joined Pompey there and left a rear guard at Capua. At Ilerda he defeated the politically-leaderless Pompeian army, commanded by the legates Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius. Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC. Caesar pursued the Pompeian army to Alexandria, where he camped and became involved with the Alexandrine Civil War between Ptolemy and his sister, wife and co-regent, Cleopatra VII. The Demigod Civil War (also known as the First Demigod Civil War) was a war between Roman and Greek demigods in 1864, involving a battle in the woods of Camp Half-Blood. The latter arrangement triggered the conspiracy leading to his assassination on the Ides of March in 44 BC. …the decisive engagement in the Roman civil war (49–45 bce) between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. Moreover, Caesar loyalists, the tribunes Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius Longinus, vetoed the bill and were quickly expelled from the Senate. The Optimates under Marcus Junius Brutus and Cicero surrendered after the battle, while others, including those under Cato the Younger and Metellus Scipio fought on. The Western Emperor Severus immediately marched on the city to confront him, but he was deserted by his men and put to death after Maxentius brought his much-revered father out of retirement to rule at his side. On March 15, the infamous Ides of March, Caesar was assassinated by a cabal of Roman senators. Within 27 days after setting out he arrived on the Iberian peninsula. Rome’s first civil war stemmed from a ruthless power struggle between the politician-generals Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. At Nicopolis Pharnaces had defeated what little Roman opposition the governor of Asia, Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus, could muster. On January 10, 49 BC, commanding the Legio XIII, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River, the boundary between the province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north and Italy proper to the south. 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