The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VII states: "No person in the United States shall on the grounds of race, color, or national origins, be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination." Communication was very difficult to their families in Poland and immigration was halted. Many were aristocrats, students, university graduates, and middle-class citizens who were systematically categorized by the Soviet police; Polish military officers were killed in Katyn, the civilians were deported to remote territories in Central Asia or Nazi concentration camps. Another prominent Pole is Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski, who was Carter’s national security advisor.  By coincidence, the first soldiers killed in the American Civil War were both Polish: Captain Constantin Blandowski, a Union battalion commander in Missouri who died in the Camp Jackson Affair, and Thaddeus Strawinski, an 18-year-old Confederate who was accidentally shot at Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island. Both of them had military experience fighting the Russians in defense of Poland's freedom. Prior to this, Polish peasants continued Medieval Era practice of three field rotation, losing one year of productive growing time to replenish soil nutrients.  A lawsuit filed against Paramount Pictures in 1983 over "Polish jokes" in the movie Flashdance was thrown out of court, as the judge found "that 'the telling of Polish jokes does not attain that degree of outlandishness' to jeoparize Poles' employment and business opportunities. Canada was given responsibility for recruiting and training. In 1945 the Red Army took control and Poland became a Communist-controlled satellite of the Soviet Union. Francis Gabreski won accolades during World War II for his victories in air fights, later to be named the "greatest living ace. Sales provided enough money for the Polish refugees in Paris who designed the dolls to survive, and extra profits were used to purchase and distribute food to the poor in Poland. When sharing her experience with the Kansas City Journal, she described the social discrimination affecting her in what was then The Kingdom of Poland, a puppet state of Russia: "...children who speak Polish on the streets of Vilna are punished and performances of any kind in the Polish language are forbidden. He raised awareness of the plight and suffering in Poland before and after World War I. McKinley, who survived the shooting for several days, called Czolgosz a "common murderer", and did not make mention of his background. His organization was entirely of Polish Americans and was created with the goal of expanding throughout Polonia. Jobs were advertised with illustrations of a green, tropical environment and wages in 1909 were promised at 15 cents per hour (equivalent to $4.27 in 2019) for men and 12.5 cents per hour ($3.56) for women. This was not due to the Counter-Reformation in Poland; in Poland, the Jesuits spread Catholicism chiefly by promoting religious education among the youth. Kosciuszko, by 1789 a major general in Poland, helped defend his own country’s borders. In Poland, Davis assessed that, "the U.S. occupies such an exaggerated place of honor in the minds of most Poles that it goes beyond rational description." , West Virginia experienced an influx of immigrant coal miners during the early 20th century, increasing the number of Poles in West Virginia to almost 15,000 by 1930. In exceptional cases one gets ten to twelve dollars for a hard week's work, most often though it is five to seven dollars.". A liberal Democrat known for hard-hitting investigations, Dingell was a major voice in economic, energy, medical and environmental issues. Winona's first known Kashubian immigrants, the family of Jozef and Franciszka von Bronk, reached Winona in 1859.  Poles who stayed in the cities generally lost ties with their children, who moved away to start new families, and faced an increase in crime and racial tension with the growing black population. They worked in war factories, tended victory gardens, and purchased large numbers of war bonds. Every year I have come to Vilna and every time the chief of police comes to me with the same paper to sign, and every time I have to sign the promise that I will not sing in Polish. In Budinsky v. Corning Glass Works, an employee of Slavic origin was fired after 14 years for speaking up about name-calling and anti-Slavic discrimination by his supervisors. Orlemanski founded the Kosciusko League in Detroit in 1943 to promote American-Soviet friendship. One such leader was Ignacy Matuszewski who opposed any negotiation with the Soviets without safeguards honoring Polish territorial claims. Here one is free to fight for the Fatherland; Through his wife's affiliation, he became a leading member of the Polish branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and preached against alcohol in Ohio, Wisconsin, and Illinois to prohibition-camps. Despite the absence of explicit ethnic discrimination in job advertisements, immigrant Poles were higher on the index of job segregation measures than the Irish in both the 1880s and the 1930s..  A study by Richard J. 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